Nickel Commercial Metal-Industrial Specifications
Nickel is obtained as sulfide, usually combined with arsenic, copper and cobalt. Meteorites found in space always consist of some magnitudes of nickel, iron and cobalt however it is not found as a native metal.
Nickel in purity of 99.9% doesn’t include cobalt and sulfur, is received from Mond Process, and it is the material utilized for producing nickel base alloys. This metal needs careful melting and de-oxidizing before it can be rolled, forged or subjected to any extent of hot or cold processing. Nickel is a significant alloying agent and used in the formation of crucial alloys such as:
Low Alloy Steels: Nickel enhances ferrite formation and hence offers toughness in steels, improving ductility without compromising with tensile characteristics. The industrial steels consisting of 4% nickel were significantly used as long as shortage of nickel and expensiveness driven the metallurgists to discover the alternative alloys. It was observed that similar results can be received in a more economical manner using chromium, molybdenum and 1 -2% nickel. The steel grades containing 9 to 10% nickel are formed that retain ductility even at the cryogenic temperatures and has additional grades of high nickel, low carbon steel called as maraging alloys, attain extremely high tensile characteristics with outstanding ductility, weldability and convenient thermal processing.
Austenitic Stainless Steels: It was observed that by inclusion of 8 to 10% nickel to 12 to 18% chromium steels a full austenitic stainless steel was produced.
Cupro-Nickels: Nickel and copper produce a series of solid solutions for the complete array of studies.
Nickel also reinforces the alpha phase in copper-zinc alloys and is present in high strength and corrosion resistant brasses and bronzes also consist of nickel.
Aluminum Alloys: Nickel improves the high temperature characteristics of aluminum alloys, specifically the aluminum-copper series.
Cobalt Alloys: Most of the complex heat and wear resistant alloys contain nickel as the ductile matrix in other alloys, this metal increases malleability without affecting the other characteristics.
Cast Iron: Nickel reinforces the ferrite in cast iron and significantly enhances the heat resistance. Most of special purpose nickel cast irons have now been developed. Generally nickel can also be stated as the most crucial and versatile alloying agent, becoming the special part of various high temperature nickel based alloys and many and variable applications are observed that are using the pure Nickel.
Following data can be used in finding the unfamiliar specifications. However it is only in competitively present times that nickel alloys have been utilized in the large magnitudes in general engineering, several nickel based alloys have had been utilized for several years. It may be because of its more potential for using the trade names of nickel alloys instead the national specifications, feasibly more than that of other advanced metals.
British Standards (BS)
This part shows the special specifications including the individual studies and forms. These have been significantly made to cover the forms individually such as:
|BS 3071||Nickel & Nickel alloy castings|
|BS 3072||Nickel & Nickel alloy sheet|
|BS 3073||Nickel & Nickel alloy strip|
|BS 3074||Nickel & Nickel alloy tube|
|BS 3075||Nickel & Nickel alloy wire|
|BS 3076||Nickel & nickel alloy rod and section|
American society for testing and materials (ASTM)
An array of individual specifications followed by a prefix ASTM and B particularly for non-ferrous alloys.
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
The specifications released under this system are prefixed with SAE. This system also includes AMS (Aerospace material specifications).
Unified numbering system (UNS)
This system is stated in ASTM E527 including only metals and alloys that are commercially recognized. The series consists of 18 numbers with each single prefix describes the specific metals family.
|D||Steels with specified mechanical characteristics|
|F||Cast irons & steels|
|G||AISI & SAE steels|
|H||AISI & SAE steels|
|J||AISI & SAE steels|
|K||AISI & SAE steels|
|L||Low melting alloys|
|P||Precious metals and alloys|
|R||Reactive and refractory metals and alloys|
|S||Stainless and heat resistant steels|
|T||Tool steels, AISI designated H steels, cast and wrought tool steels|
|W||Weld filler materials|
|Z||Zinc and zinc alloys|
German standard specification (DIN)
This system includes specifications prefixed with DIN that includes the material forms such as bar, sheets and others. The evaluation of alloys is recognized through two systems. The advanced methods utilize the numbers 2.4000 and 2.4999.
Properties of commercial pure wrought and cast Nickel
|Solidus and Liquidus||1435 to 1445oC|
|Thermal conductivity||60.7 W/m.oC|
|Coefficient of linear expansion||13.3 x 10(-6) per oC|
|Electrical conductivity||19 % IACS (copper 100%)|
|Speciffic resistance||91 microhm mm|
|Young’s modulus of elasticity||207 x 10 N/m2|
|Impact||Cold rolled 160 J|
|Fatigue strength||Cold rolled 290 N/m2|
|Temperature, oC||Tensile strength, N/mm2||Elongation %|
The major application of pure nickel is in the form of anodes for electro-plating. These are normally cast with a limited presence of oxide to create a thin grain, called as de-polarized anodes. These are miscible uniformly and hence are more cost-effective than highly pure wrought nickel. The common use is as electrolytic nickel containing sulfur providing the identical results while becoming more cost-effective.
On the base of manufacturing method of nickel, it may or may not contain oxygen, carbon, sulfur or cobalt in nominal magnitudes. With oxygen and carbon the cold processing characteristics and weldability of nickel are severely affected because of sulfur that damages the corrosion resistance and welding properties of the metal. Cobalt present in nominal magnitudes doesn’t leave any serious impact on nickel’s characteristics.
Any kind of enhancement in the characteristics of nickel is not feasible by any heat processing. Nickel cold works and to remove this effect, the temperature limit must exceed 1000oC. In unavailability of carbon and oxygen, significant cold processing of nickel is possible that improves without increasing brittleness. Thin Nickel sheets can be formed through interstage annealing.
Nickel offers outstanding corrosion resistance properties and it remains isolated in the various acidic media at the high temperature. A strong oxide layer is produced on the external layer that greatly secures the underlying metal from additional oxidation even at the extremely high temperature limits.
Nickel has significant electrical and magnetic characteristics resulted by the abnormal configuration of its valence shell of electrons that is similar to iron and cobalt. All of these metals show ferromagnetic nature. The reliable oxide is of self-creating in nature causes troubles in brazing and welding of some forms of nickels. Therefore specialized procedure needs to be followed.
The outstanding corrosion resistance properties of nickel against several types of acids make this metal significant in the range of applications but due to expensiveness, it is not extensively used in the pure form.
Austenitic stainless steel grades offering significant performance similar to nickel are replacing the metal in lab apparatus, crucibles and others. The chromium plating for architectural purposes has a base layer of nickel that is significantly thicker than chromium.
Electroless nickel is getting popularity nowadays as it can be hardened and offers suitable corrosion resistance properties hence providing an exclusive pair of outstanding resistance to corrosion and abrasion.
Nickel in extensive form has significant use for its outstanding magnetic characteristics however it is an uncommon metal that is hardly observed in industry.
Symbols, specifications and Analysis of Nickel alloys
|1.4876||.4 % Ti NI, German Standard||E R Ni Cr Fe 5||Cr 15.5 % Fe 7 % Nb 2.2 % C 0.08 % Ni alloy, weld electrode followed by AWS|
|2.4050||99.8 % Ni, German Standard||E R Ni Cr Mo 2||21 % Cr, 9 % Mo, 0.1 % C, 1.5 % Co, 0.7 % W Ni alloy, weld electrode, specified by AWS|
|2.4051||0.02 % Mg 99.8 % Ni anode, German Standard||E R Ni Cr Mo 11||29 % Cr, 5 % Mo, 1 % Nb, 0.03 % , 2.5 % W Ni alloy, weld electrode, specified by AWS|
|2.4052||0.05 % Mg, 99.7 % Ni Anode, German Standard||FS 718||18.5 % Cr 20 % Fe 3 % Mo 0.9 % Ti 0.6 % Al 5 % Nb 0.05 % C TA NI alloy, firth sterling, solution processed and aged, UTS 1500, Elon 21 %, proof 1350|
|2.4053||.07 % Mg, 99.7 % Ni anode, German Standard||Hastelloy A||20 % Fe 20 % Mo 0.1 % C Ni alloy,|
|2.4056||0.2 % Si 99.6% Ni anode, German standard||Hastelloy B||1 % Cr 5 % Fe 28 % Mo 0.1 % C Ni Alloy, casting|
|2.4060||99.6 % Ni, German standard||Hastelloy B||1 % Cr 5 % Fe 28 % Mo 0.12 % C 0.5 % V 2.5 % Co Ni alloy casting, prevents attack by hydrochloric and phosphoric acid, solution processed and aged, UTS 590, Elong 12 % Proof 330|
|2.4062||0.4 % Fe 99.4% Ni, German Standard||Hastelloy C||16 % Cr 5 % Fe 17 % Mo 0.12 % C 4 % W 2.5 % Co Ni alloy, casting, solution processed, acid and thermal shock resistant, UTS 550, elong 8 %|
|2.4066||99.2 % German Standard||Hastelloy C||16 % Cr 5 % Fe 17 % Mo 0.1 % C 4 % W Ni alloy, casting|
|2.4068||0.02 % C 99% Ni, German Standard||Hastelloy C276||Low carbon 15.5 % Cr 5.5 % Fe 16 % Mo 3.7 % W Ni alloy Langley alloys|
|2.4106||0.8 % Mn 98% Ni, German standard||NI o Nel 825||21.5 % Cr, 30 % Fe 3 % Mo 0.9 % Ti .03 % C Ni alloy, bar and sheet, known as Incoloy 825|
|99 alloy||99.8% Ni Driver Harris UTS 530||Nimonic 80A||20 % cr 5 % Fe 2 % Ti 1 % Al 0.1 % C 2 % Co Ni alloy H Wiggin, solution processed and aged, tensile strength 600 N/mm2 at 750 oC, DPN 300, UTS 1070, Elon 40 % Proof 600|
|Alloy 200||.25 % Fe, .35 % Mn, .07 % C No and Co, Carpenter, high levels Ni||Ni Cr 15 Fe||Cr 15 %, Fe 8 % Ni alloy, German standards|
|Alloy 201||.25 % Fe, .35 % Mn, .02 % C No and Co, Carpenter, high levels Ni||Ni Cr 60/15||15 % Cr 21 % Fe Ni alloy , German Standards|
|Alloy 205||.03 % Ti, .35 % Mn, .07 % C, .06 % Mg, Ni, carpenter for magnetic applications||Ni Cr 70/30||Cr 30 % Si 1.2 %. C 0.07 % Ni alloy, VDM|
|Nickel A||.06 % C, 99.5 % Ni, Bar, sheet, Hunitngton, mow Nickel 200||Ni Cr 80/20||Cr 20 %, Si 1.2 %, C 0.07 % Ni alloy, VDM|
|Nickel A||99% Ni, used in electronic leads, H Wiggin, annealed, electric conductivity 20 %, IACS, DPN-95, UTS – 370, Elon – 45%, proof – 100||Nichrome||Low C 15 % Cr 20 % Fe Ni alloy, for resistance elements, British driver- Harris, annealed, UTS 170|
|Active Ni||0.2 % si, Mg, Ni for thermionic valves, British driver- Harris||Nichrome II||18 % Cr 14 % Fe Ni alloy, British driver- harris, withdrawn|
|Alloy 200||0.1 % C, 99.2 % Ni, VDM||Nichrome III||15 % Cr Ni alloy, British driver, as Kromore withdrawb|
|Alloy 201||.02 % C, Ni 99 % VDM||Nichrome IV||20 % Cr Ni alloy – British driver harris withdrawn|
|Alloy 205||.02% C, Ni 99.6 % VDM||Nichrome V||Cr 20 % Ni alloy, British driver, application temperature 1150oC, UTS 870|
|Alloy 501||Nickel cast, Ampco, DPN 130||Nichrome V||20 % Cr Ni alloy, for electrical resistance, British driver harris annealed, UTS 170|
|AMPCO 501||Nickel wrought, ampco stands for nickel A||2.4602||Cr 16 %, Fe 6 %, Mo 17 %, W 4 % Ni alloy, German standard|
|AMPCOLAY 502||Nickel wrought, Apmco stands for nickel A||2.4605||22 % Cr, 25 % Fe, 7 % Mo, 2 % Nb Ni allot, German standard.|
|AMS 5865||C .02 %, Th 2.2% oxide Ni||2.4634||Cr 14.7 % Mo 5 % B 0.008 % Ti 1.2 % Al 4.7 % C 0.15 % Co 20 % Ni alloy|
|AMS 5890||C .02 %, Th 2.2% oxide Ni||2.4662||Cr 16.5 %, Fe 35 % Mo 3.2 % Al 1.7 % C 0.06 % Co 2 % Ni alloy, German Standard|
|ANS A515 E NI Ci||C .6 %, Ni: welding electrode||2.4665||Cr 21.5 %, Fe 18 % Mo 9 % C 0.1 % W 1.5 % Co Ni alloy, German standard|
|ASTM A636||Fe .5 %, Cu .9 %, Co 1.3 % Ni 75%, sinter for alloying||2.4858||Cr 22 % Fe 35 % Mo 3 % Cu 2% C 0.05 % Ni alloy, German standard|
|ASTM B39A Shot||.9 % Fe, .75 % C, .07% S, 97.7 % Ni, Shot, virgin metal||2.4889||Cr 15 %, Fe 15 % Mo 7 % Ni alloy, German standard|
|ASTM B39 electrolytic||.6 % Fe, .1 % C, .02 % S, 99.5 % Ni virgin metal||2.4952||Cr – 19.5 %, Ti 22 %, Al 1.4 %, C – 0.06 % Ni alloy, German standard|
|ASTM B39 Ingot||98.5 % Nickel, pure metal||2.4969||Cr – 19.5 %, Ti – 2.5 %, Al – 1.5 %, C – 0.13 %, Co – 18 % Ni alloy, German Standard|
|ASTM B39 X Shot||.6 % Fe, .1 % C, .02 % S, 99.5 % Ni, pure metal||Inconel 718||Cr 19 % Fe 18 % Mo 3 % Ti 1 % Al 0.6 % Nb + Ta 5 % C 0.08 % Ni alloy, solution processed and aged, UTS 1380, proof 1100|
|ASTM B160||.4% fe, .2 % Cu, .3 % Mn, .15 % C, Ni bal, annealed bar, UTS – 370, Elong – 40% Proof 75 %||C 242||21 .5 % Cr, 10.5 % MO 10% Co Ni alloy, casting, H Wiggin,|
|ASTM B161||0.4 % Fe, 0.25 % Cu, 0.3 % Mn, C 0.15 %, Ni, annealed tube, UTS – 370, Elong 40 %, Proof 90||C 263||20 % Cr 5.9 % Mo 2.2 % Ti 0.5 % Al 20 % Co Ni alloy, forging, H Wiggin for using about 850 oC|
|ASTM B162||0.4 % Fe, 0.25 % Cu, 0.3 % Mn, C 0.15 %, Ni, sheet and strip, hard, UTS – 670, Elong 2 %, Proof 480||C 276||15 % Cr, 5.5 % Fe 16 % Mo 4% W 2 % Co Ni alloy|
|ASTM B304 ER Ni 3||.15 % C, 93 % Ni, welding electrode, previous designation ERN 61||Inconel 600||Cr – 16 % Fe – .7 %, Cu – .2 % Ni alloy, wrought, H wiggin, annealed, DPN 180, UTS 620|
|ASTM B304 R Ni 2||.15 % C, 97 % Ni, welding electrode, past designation RN 41||Inconel 600||15 % Cr, 8 % Fe Ni alloy, wrought H wiggin, annealed tensile strength at 800 oC, 10 tons per inch 2|
|AT Nickel||0.4 % Fe, 0.25 % Cu, 0.15 % C, 0.01 % S, 99 % Ni, wrought, H Wiggin, annealed sheet, bar and plate, DPN – 100, UTS 370, Elong 40 %, Proof – 20||Inconel 600||15 % Cr, 8% Fe Ni alloy, wrought H Wiggin, cold drawn, DPN 280, UTS 810, elong 12%, proof 760|
|AT Nickel||0.4 % Fe, 0.25 % Cu, .01 % S, 99 % Ni, wrought H Wiggin, cold rolled, sheet, bar, plate, DPN – 200, elon – 10 %, Proof – 30||Inconel 600||15.8 % Cr, 7.2 % Fe, 0.04 % C Ni alloy, bar, sheet, annealed|
|Ballast Nickel||99.8 % Ni, for current limiting controls, driver harris||Inconel 600||15.8 % Cr, 7.2 % Fe, 0.04 %C NI alloy, bar, sheet etc, DPN 250, UTS 910, elong 25 %, proof 600|
|BS 375 A||0.1 % C, 99.5 % Ni, refined metal, basic metal||Inconel 601||22 % Cr, 15% Fe, 1.5 % Al, 0.1 % C, heat and corrosion resistance, DPN 70, UTS 690, elon 50 %, proof 560|
|BS 558||98.5 % Ni, for anodes, nickel plating anodes||Inconel 601||Cr 23 %, Fe 17 % Al Ni alloy, for hot oxidation resistance, Huntington, DPN 120, UTS 600, Elong 50 %, proof 250|
|BS 1525||Nickel & its alloy, sheet, substituted by BS 3072, BS 3073||Inconel 706||Cr 16 %, Fe 38 %, Ti 1.7 %, Nb 3%, C 0.06 % Ni alloy|
|BS 1526||Nickel & its alloy, sheet, substituted by BS 3072, BS 3073||Inconel 625||Cr 21.5 % Fe 5 %, Mo 9 %, C 0. 1 %, Ni alloy|
|BS 1527||Nickel & its alloy, sheet, substituted by BS 3072, BS 3073||Incoloy 825||Cr 21 %, Mo 3%, Ti 1 %, Cu 2.2 %, C 0.05 % Ni alloy|
|BS 1528||Nickel & its alloy, bar, substituted by BS 3076||BS 1534||Nickel & its alloy, wire, substituted by BS 3075|
|BS 1529||Nickel & its alloy, bar, substituted by BS 3076||BS 1535||Nickel & its alloy, wire, substituted by BS 3075|
|BS 1530||Nickel & its alloy, bar, substituted by BS 3076||BS 1536||Nickel & its alloy, wire, substituted by BS 3075|
|BS 1531||Nickel & its alloy, tube, substituted by BS 3074||Carbonized nickel||99 % Nickel, for anode plates, driver harris|
|BS 1532||Nickel & its alloy, tube, substituted by BS 3074||Cathode nickel||99.5 % Ni, for electronic valve, driver harris|
|BS 1533||Nickel & its alloy, tube, substituted by BS 3074||Nickel 200||.06 % C, 99.5 % Ni, bar, sheet, forging and others, Huntington, UTS – 450, Elong – 47 %, Proof – 120|
|Nickel 201||.01 % , 99.5 % Ni, Bar, sheet, forging and others, Huntington|
At Heanjia Super-Metals the Non-ferrous alloys produced for industrial supply are:
|Monel||Monel 400||Monel K500|
|Inconel||Alloy 600||Alloy 601||Alloy 625||Alloy 718||Alloy X750|
|Incoloy||Alloy 800||Alloy 800H/HT||Alloy 825||Alloy A286|
|Hastelloy||Hastelloy B||Hastelloy C||Hastelloy X||Hastelloy G30|
|Nilo||Nilo 36||Nilo 42||Nilo 48||Nilo 52|
|Nichrome||Nichrome A||Nichrome C|
|Steel||2205 Duplex||2507 duplex||SS 310||SS 316l||SS 330||SS 904l|
|Other alloys||Haynes 214||Permalloy||Soft mag alloys||Alloy 4750||Ni Span C902|
|Cu Ni alloy||Cu Ni 70/30 alloy||Cu Ni 90/10 alloy|